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Company and Regulatory details

Martin Currie Investment Management Limited, a wholly-owned subsidiary of Martin Currie Limited, is authorised and regulated in the United Kingdom by the Financial Conduct Authority. This entity provides portfolio management services to professional clients in the EMEA region.

Martin Currie, Inc., a wholly owned subsidiary of Martin Currie Limited, is registered as an Investment Adviser with the SEC and provides portfolio management services to Martin Currie clients in the USA.

Franklin Templeton Investment Trust Management Limited acts as the Alternative Investment Funds Manager (the “AIFM”) for Martin Currie Global Portfolio Trust PLC and Martin Currie Investment Management Limited acts as the portfolio manager. Both companies are authorised and regulated in the United Kingdom by the Financial Conduct Authority:

  • Franklin Templeton Investment Trust Management Limited – FCA No. 613473
  • Martin Currie Investment Management Limited – FCA No. 119289

Martin Currie Investment Management Ltd is also registered as an Investment Adviser with the Securities and Exchange Commission (SEC) in the United States of America.

Martin Currie, Inc., a wholly owned subsidiary of Martin Currie Limited, is registered as an Investment Adviser with the SEC and provides portfolio management services to Martin Currie clients in the USA.

If you would like further information on the Financial Conduct Authority (FCA), our regulator, you can access their website.

If you would like further information on the Securities Exchange Commission (SEC) you can access their website.


This website is intended for the information of residents in countries in which Martin Currie group services and products may be sold unless otherwise stated. The information contained within this website does not constitute an offer of or an invitation to apply for securities:

  • In any jurisdiction where such offer or invitation is unlawful or
  • In which the person making such offer is not qualified to do so or
  • To whom it is unlawful to make such offer or solicitation.

The information has been issued and approved by Martin Currie Investment Management Limited and/or Martin Currie, Inc. (collectively 'Martin Currie'). It does not in any way constitute investment, tax, legal or other advice. If you are in any doubt about any of the information on this website, please consult your financial or other professional adviser.

The information contained in this site has been compiled with considerable care to ensure its accuracy at the date of publication. But no representation or warranty, express or implied, is made to its accuracy or completeness. Any research or analysis contained in this website has been procured by Martin Currie for its own use. It is provided to you only incidentally, and any opinions expressed are subject to change without notice.

Anti-money laundering

Martin Currie must adhere to anti-money laundering legislation. This requires us to carry out identity verification checks. If we cannot adequately verify your and/ or your client's identification in accordance with the relevant legislation, we reserve the right to refuse the investment. If the funds are invested prior to the identity checks being carried out, we will not release the proceeds until we receive adequate verification of your and/or your client's identity.

Services and Products

Listed below are some of the services provided by Martin Currie, and some of the products provided by its parent company (Franklin Templeton) that invest in Martin Currie strategies. It is your responsibility to find out about, and observe, all applicable laws and regulations of any relevant jurisdiction in connection with any of the below products. Further details on these products, and the full range of products available for investment, can be found on the Franklin Templeton website:

Franklin Templeton Funds

Franklin Templeton Funds (formerly Legg Mason Funds ICVC) is a company incorporated as an Investment Company with Variable Capital (ICVC) and is authorised by the Financial Conduct Authority under reference number 184169. Franklin Templeton Fund Management Limited is the Authorised Corporate Director (ACD) of Franklin Templeton Funds and Martin Currie Investment Management Limited is the appointed investment manager for the following sub-funds of Franklin Templeton Funds:

  • FTF Martin Currie Asia Unconstrained Fund
  • FTF Martin Currie Emerging Markets Fund
  • FTF Martin Currie European Unconstrained Fund
  • FTF Martin Currie Global Unconstrained Fund
  • FTF Martin Currie Japan Equity Fund
  • FTF Martin Currie US Unconstrained Fund
  • FTF Martin Currie UK Equity Income Fund
  • FTF Martin Currie UK Managers Focus Fund
  • FTF Martin Currie UK Mid Cap Fund
  • FTF Martin Currie UK Opportunities Fund
  • FTF Martin Currie UK Rising Dividends Fund
  • FTF Martin Currie UK Smaller Companies Fund
  • FTF Martin Currie UK Equity Income Fund

Further information on Franklin Templeton Funds and its sub-funds can be found on the Franklin Templeton website.

Franklin Templeton Global Funds plc

Franklin Templeton Global Funds plc (FTGF) (formerly known as Legg Mason Global Funds plc) is an umbrella fund with segregated liability between sub-funds registered in Ireland. It also qualifies as a UCITS (Undertakings for Collective Investment in Transferable Securities) fund in the European Union. Martin Currie Investment Management Limited is either the appointed investment manager or sub-investment manager for the following sub-funds of Franklin Templeton Global Funds

  • FTGF Martin Currie Asia Pacific ex Japan Real Income Fund
  • FTGF Martin Currie European Unconstrained Fund
  • FTGF Martin Currie Global Emerging Markets Fund
  • FTGF Martin Currie Global Long-Term Unconstrained Fund
  • FTGF Martin Currie Improving Society Fund

Franklin Templeton Investment Funds

Franklin Templeton Investment Funds plc (FTIF) is a company incorporated in Luxembourg, which qualifies as a SICAV (société d’investissement à capital variable). The company consists of separate classes of shares, of no par value, each linked to a particular sub-fund. Martin Currie Investment Management Limited is either the appointed investment manager or sub-investment manager for the following sub-funds of Franklin Templeton Investment Funds:

  • Franklin UK Equity Income Fund

Further details of the services provided by Martin Currie can be found on the Martin Currie website, in the ‘Strategies’ section.

Franklin Templeton Canada

The below Franklin Templeton funds are registered and distributed for residents of Canada under the NATIONAL INSTRUMENT 81-102. Martin Currie Investment Management Limited is the appointed investment manager for the following Canadian funds:

  • Franklin Martin Currie Improving Society Fund
  • Franklin Martin Currie Sustainable Global Equity Fund
  • Franklin Martin Currie Sustainable Emerging Markets Fund

Information about the funds, such as fund facts, management reports, financial statements, and prospectus, are available on each fund’s designated website at


Our communications with you, whether by telephone or otherwise, may be recorded for your protection and for our regulatory compliance.

Risk factors

Risk warnings
Investors should also be aware of the following risk factors which may be applicable to an investment in a Martin Currie strategy or product:

General risk
Past performance is not necessarily a guide to the future and the value of investments, as well as any income derived from them, can fall as well as rise.
Some of the investments described below may be unsuitable for certain investors.

Performance risk
There may be a variation in performance between strategies with apparently similar investment objectives where different investments are selected. Strategies aiming for relatively high performance can incur greater risk than those adopting a more standard investment approach. There is no guarantee of performance of any investment, and clients may get back less than they originally invested.

Our investment strategies are subject to management risk because they are actively managed. The strategy manager will apply their investment techniques and risk analyses in making investment decisions, but there is no guarantee that their decisions will produce the intended performance.

Interest rate risk
Investment portfolios may have exposure to interest rate risks. To the extent prevailing interest rates change, such changes could negatively affect the value of each investment portfolio.

Diversification risk
Investment strategies with a specific geographic or sector focus will, by their nature, invest the majority of their assets in either a small number of countries and/or a few issuers. This concentration of the strategy increases the impact which changes in the economic or political environment and/or movements in stock markets may have on the performance of the strategies, both positive and negative.

Currency risk
Strategies may invest in securities denominated in currencies other than their base currency. Strategies may seek to hedge foreign currency risk where permitted; however, it is not always practicable to hedge certain currencies. Strategies will also incur costs in connection with hedging transactions. Accordingly, investors bear the risk of adverse movements in exchange rates with the currencies in which investments are denominated. Such movements can result in both a positive and negative return.

Custody risk
In the event of failure of a custodian, investments may not be as well protected from other claims made on behalf of the general creditors of said custodian. However, the custodian is typically liable for any losses resulting from its negligence, fraud or wilful misconduct.

Credit risk
This is the risk that an issuer or a counterparty to a transaction will fail to make payments when due or default completely on securities, repurchase agreements or other investments held by a strategy. Such defaults could result in losses to the strategy. In addition, the credit quality of securities held by a strategy may be lowered if an issuer’s financial condition changes. Lower credit quality may lead to greater volatility in the price of a security. Lower credit quality also may affect liquidity and make it difficult to sell the security.

Counterparty risk
Counterparty risk is the risk that arises due to uncertainty in a counterparty’s ability to meet its obligations. Non-performance by counterparties for financial or other reasons could expose the investor to losses, regardless of whether or not the transaction itself was profitable.

Redemption risk
This is the risk that a pooled investment company (“fund”) may need to sell its holdings in order to meet shareholder redemption requests. A fund could experience a loss when selling securities to meet redemption requests if the redemption requests are unusually large or frequent, occur in times of overall market turmoil or declining prices for the securities sold, or when the securities a fund wishes to or is required to sell are illiquid.

Investment in smaller companies
Investment in the securities of smaller companies may involve greater risk than is customarily associated with investment in larger, more established companies. In particular, smaller companies often have limited product lines, markets or financial resources and may be dependent on a smaller number of key individuals. Full information for determining the value of or risks associated with a smaller company may not be available. The market for stock in smaller companies is often less liquid than that for stock in larger companies, bringing with it potential difficulties in acquiring, valuing and disposing of such stock.

Liquidity and valuation
Strategies may invest in securities which are subject to legal or other restrictions on transfer or for which no liquid market exists. The market prices, if any, for such securities tend to be more volatile and a strategy may not be able to sell them when desired or to realise what it perceives to be their fair value in the event of a sale. As a result, calculating the fair market value of a strategy’s holdings may be difficult. The strategy manager may utilise the assistance of pricing services or valuation sources in calculating such fair market values when and if available and for underlying models as described above. The values initially obtained could be incorrect.

Certain strategies may invest in complex derivative instruments that seek to modify or emulate the investment performance of particular securities, commodities, currencies, interest rates, indices, markets or specific risks thereof on a leveraged or unleveraged basis which can be equivalent to a long or short position in the underlying asset or risk.

These instruments generally have counterparty risk and may not perform in the manner expected, thereby resulting in greater loss or gain than might otherwise be anticipated. These investments are all subject to additional risks that may result in a loss of all or part of an investment, such as interest rate and credit risk volatility, world and local market price and demand, and general economic factors and activity.

Derivatives may have very high leverage embedded in them which may substantially magnify market movements and result in losses substantially greater than the amount of the investment, which in some cases could represent a significant portion of a strategy’s assets. Some of the markets in which derivative transactions are affected are over-the-counter or interdealer markets. The participants in such markets are typically not subject to credit evaluation and regulatory oversight as they are members of exchange based markets.

This exposes each strategy to the risks that counterparty will not settle a transaction because of a credit or liquidity problem or because of disputes over the terms of the contract. Strategies are not restricted from dealing with any one particular counterparty or from concentrating all of its transactions with one particular counterparty.

Stock lending
Certain strategies may undertake stock lending. As a result of lending securities, the client will cease to be the owner of them, although will have the right to reacquire at a future date equivalent securities (or in certain circumstances, their cash value or the proceeds of redemption). However, except to the extent collateral is received, the client’s right to the return of the securities is subject to the risk of insolvency or other non-performance by the borrower. Since the client is not the owner during the period the securities are lent out, they will not have voting rights nor will they directly receive dividends or other corporate actions (although the client will normally be entitled to a payment from the borrower equivalent to the dividend that would otherwise have been received, and the borrower will be required to account to the client’s benefit for any corporate actions). Whilst these terms are relatively standard for any stock lending agreement, the specific details will be contained within the stock lending agreement entered into, and may differ from the terms above.

It is important to note that commissions and other charges may be charged on investments made within a strategy for which the client’s account will be liable.

Suspensions of trading
Under certain trading conditions, it may be difficult or impossible to liquidate a position. This may occur, for example, at times of rapid price movement if the price rises or falls in one trading session to such an extent that under the rules of the relevant exchange trading is suspended or restricted. Placing a stop-loss order will not necessarily limit losses to the intended amounts, because market conditions may make it impossible to execute such an order at the stipulated price.

From time to time, Martin Currie may carry out transactions in securities on a client’s behalf where the price may have been influenced by measures taken to stabilise it. Stabilisation enables the market price of a security to be maintained artificially during the period when a new issue of securities is sold to the public. Stabilisation may affect not only the price of the new issue but also the price of other securities relating to it. The FCA allows stabilisation in order to help counter the fact that, when a new issue comes onto the market for the first time, the price can sometimes drop for a time before buyers are found. The effect of this may be to keep the price at a higher level than it would otherwise be during the period of stabilisation. The fact that a new issue or a related security is being stabilised should not be taken as any indication of the level of interest from investors, nor of the price at which they are prepared to buy the securities.

General economic and market conditions
The success of any strategy’s activities will be affected by general economic and market conditions, such as interest rates, availability of credit, credit defaults, inflation rates, economic uncertainty, changes in laws (including laws relating to the taxation of investments), trade barriers, currency exchange controls, and national and international political circumstances (including wars, terrorist acts or security operations). These factors may affect the level and volatility of investments’ prices and the liquidity of particular investments. Volatility or illiquidity could impair an investment’s profitability or result in losses. Any strategy may maintain substantial trading positions that can be adversely affected by the level of volatility in the financial markets – the larger the positions, the greater the potential for loss.

The economies of countries in which certain strategies may invest may differ in such respects as growth of gross domestic product, rate of inflation, currency depreciation, asset reinvestment, resource self-sufficiency and balance of payments position. Further, certain economies are heavily dependent upon international trade and, accordingly, have been and may continue to be adversely affected by trade barriers, exchange controls, managed adjustments in relative currency values and other protectionist measures imposed or negotiated by the countries with which they trade. The economies of certain countries may be based, predominantly, on only a few industries and may be vulnerable to changes in trade conditions and may have higher levels of debt or inflation.

Material risks relating to investments in emerging markets
Emerging markets are generally defined as being less developed countries which may have less stable economic and/or political conditions than larger and more mature economies. However, the universe can also be more specifically understood by reference to frequently used benchmarks such as the MSCI Emerging Markets Index.

Investment in emerging markets is generally characterised by higher levels of risk than investment in fully developed markets. Accounting, corporate governance and financial reporting standards that prevail in certain emerging market countries are often not equivalent to those found in countries with more developed markets. Regulatory, tax and legal regimes may be subject to uncertainty and to significant and unpredictable changes in approach.

Repatriation of investments and profits may be restricted by exchange controls. There may also be less well developed regulation of markets, issuers and intermediates. Markets may lack the liquidity of those in developed countries, leading to difficulty in valuing assets. Instability in such markets has previously led, and may continue to lead, to investor losses.

In some emerging markets, the marketability of quoted shares may be limited due to foreign investment restrictions, wide dealing spreads, exchange controls, foreign ownership restrictions, the restricted opening of stock exchanges and a narrow range of investors. Trading volume will generally be lower than on more developed stock markets, and equities less liquid. Volatility of prices may also be greater than in more developed stock markets. Emerging market issuers are generally not subject to the same degree of regulation, and economic or financial instability or political, diplomatic or legal developments could adversely affect a strategy’s investments. Risks include adverse change in foreign economic, political, regulatory and other conditions, and changes in currency exchange rates, exchange control regulations (including currency blockage), expropriation of assets or nationalization, imposition of withholding taxes or confiscatory taxation on capital, dividend or interest payments, and possible difficulty in obtaining and enforcing judgments against foreign entities. Foreign brokerage commissions, custodial and other fees are also generally higher. There are also special tax considerations which apply to securities of foreign issuers and securities principally traded overseas.

Settlement of transactions carried out in such markets may be lengthier and less secure than in developed markets. A country’s settlement practices may require margin payments for securities traded, or ‘early pay-in’ of securities or payment. This may result in payment or settlement outside delivery-versus-payment procedures. Delivery-versus payment procedures offer significant protection from losses in the event that a third-party defaults on its obligations. The settlement practices in some foreign markets my increase the risk arising from third-party default.

Strategies invested in emerging markets may experience more rapid and extreme changes. Emerging markets tend to be substantially smaller, less liquid and at times more volatile than securities of domestic issuers. This may impair a strategy’s ability to acquire or dispose of assets at an advantageous price and time.

Legal risk
Many of the laws that govern private and foreign investment, equity securities transactions and other contractual relationships in certain countries, particularly in developing countries, are new and largely untested. As a result, investments may be subject to a number of unusual risks, including inadequate investor protection, contradictory legislation, incomplete, unclear and changing laws, ignorance or breaches of regulations on the part of other market participants, lack of established or effective avenues for legal redress, lack of standard practices and confidentiality customs characteristic of developed markets and lack of enforcement of existing regulations. Furthermore, it may be difficult to obtain and enforce a judgment in certain countries in which assets are invested. There can be no assurance that this difficult in protecting and enforcing rights will not have a material adverse effect on a particular strategy and/or investment.

Inability to transact as a result of exposure to material non-public information
From time to time, Martin Currie may receive material non-public information with respect to an issuer of publicly traded securities. In such circumstances, Martin Currie may be prohibited, by law, policy or contract, for a period of time, from (i) unwinding a position in such issuer; (ii) establishing an initial position or taking any greater position in such issuer, and (iii) pursuing other investment opportunities related to such issuer. This can result in risk of loss or loss of opportunity if Martin Currie, on behalf of a client, is not able to purchase or sell such security.

Business, terrorism and catastrophe risks
Opportunities involving the assumption by a client’s portfolio of various risks relating to particular assets, markets or events may be considered from time to time. A client’s portfolio is subject to the risk of loss arising from exposure that it may incur, directly or indirectly, due to the occurrence of various events including, without limitation, hurricanes, earthquakes and other natural disasters, terrorism and other catastrophic events, and events that could adversely affect the health or life expectancy of people. These risks of loss can be substantial, could greatly exceed all income or other gains, if any, received by the portfolio in assuming these risks and, depending on the size of the loss, could adversely affect the return of the client.

Business, terrorism and catastrophe risks
Opportunities involving the assumption by a client’s portfolio of various risks relating to particular assets, markets or events may be considered from time to time. A client’s portfolio is subject to the risk of loss arising from exposure that it may incur, directly or indirectly, due to the occurrence of various events including, without limitation, hurricanes, earthquakes and other natural disasters, terrorism and other catastrophic events, and events that could adversely affect the health or life expectancy of people. These risks of loss can be substantial, could greatly exceed all income or other gains, if any, received by the portfolio in assuming these risks and, depending on the size of the loss, could adversely affect the return of the client.

Systemic risk
Credit risk may arise through a default by one of several large institutions that are dependent on one another to meet their liquidity or operational needs, so that a default by one institution causes a series of defaults by the other institutions. This is sometimes referred to as a ‘systemic risk’ and may adversely affect financial intermediaries, such as clearing agencies, clearing houses, banks, securities firms and exchanges, with which Martin Currie interacts on a daily basis.

Cybersecurity risk
As part of its business, Martin Currie processes, stores and transmits large amounts of electronic information, including information relating to the transactions of clients’ portfolios and personally identifiable information relating to the clients. Similarly, service providers of Martin Currie may process, store and transmit such information. Martin Currie has procedures and systems in place that it believes are reasonably designed to protect such information and prevent data loss and security breaches. However, such measures cannot provide absolute security. The techniques used to obtain unauthorised access to data, disable or degrade service, or sabotage systems change frequently and may be difficult to detect for long periods of time. Hardware or software acquired from third parties may contain defects in design or manufacture or other problems that could unexpectedly compromise information security.

Network connected services provided by third parties to Martin Currie may be susceptible to compromise, leading to a breach of Martin Currie’s network. Martin Currie’s systems or facilities may be susceptible to employee error or malfeasance, government surveillance, or other security threats. Online services provided by Martin Currie to clients may only be susceptible to compromise. Breach of Martin Currie’s information systems may cause information relating to the transactions of portfolios and personally identifiable information of clients to be lost or improperly accessed, used or disclosed.

Martin Currie’s service providers are subject to the same electronic information security threats as Martin Currie. If a service provider fails to adopt or adhere to adequate data security policies, or in the event of a breach of its networks, information relating to the transactions of clients and personally identifiable information of clients may be lost or improperly accessed, used or disclosed. Martin Currie performs due diligence on service providers for compliance with cyber security controls, but cannot guarantee that there will not be a cybersecurity event.

The loss or improper access, use or disclosure of Martin Currie’s proprietary information may cause Martin Currie to suffer, among other things, financial loss, the disruption of its business, liability to third parties, regulatory intervention or reputational damage. Any of the foregoing events could have a material adverse effect on a client’s portfolio.

As an investment manager authorised and regulated by the FCA, Martin Currie was previously subject to provisions of certain European directives and regulations (for instance, the Markets in Financial Instruments Directive and the European Market Infrastructure Regulation) which had either been incorporated into UK law or had direct effect in the UK. Following Brexit, the UK incorporated the pre-existing body of EU law into its domestic legal system to ensure stability, however the longer-term impact of the decision to leave the EU on the UK regulatory framework will depend on any future divergence between the regimes in the EU and the UK.

Regulatory cooperation memoranda of understanding were put in place between the FCA and the regulators of the EU member states ahead of the exit date which ensure that the ability to delegate portfolio management to UK firms from the EU continues.

It is not possible to ascertain the precise long-term impact the UK’s departure from the EU will have on Martin Currie or its clients from an economic, financial or regulatory perspective but any such impact could have material consequences for Martin Currie or its clients. However, Martin Currie based its contingency plans on the assumption of a hard, no-deal Brexit which mitigated any material impact on our business and our clients following the end of the transition period in January 2020.

There is also a wider risk that other significant market or regulatory changes subsequently take place within the European Union, both as a result of Brexit or otherwise, and that such changes impact Martin Currie or its clients.

Risk warnings relating to designated investments

A share is a certificate representing a shareholder's rights in a company. Shares may be issued in bearer or registered form. One share represents a fraction of a company's share capital. Dividend payments, and an increase or decrease in the value of the security, are both possible. A shareholder has financial and ownership rights that are determined by law and the issuing company's constitutive documents. Unless otherwise provided, transfers of bearer shares do not entail any formalities. However, transfers of registered shares may be subject to limitations.

Dealing in shares may involve the following specific risks:

  • Company risk: a share purchaser does not lend funds to the company, but makes a capital contribution and, as such, becomes a co-owner of the company. A share purchaser therefore participates in the company’s development, as well as in chances for profits and losses. This makes it difficult to forecast the likely return on such an investment. In extreme circumstances, the company could become insolvent, which could cause an investor to lose the entire sum invested;
  • Price risk: share prices may undergo unforeseeable price fluctuations, resulting in risk of loss. Prices may vary over time and it may not be possible to determine the duration of those cycles.
  • General market risk must be distinguished from the specific risk attached to the company itself. Both risks, jointly or in aggregate, influence the evolution of share prices;
  • Dividend risk: the dividend per share depends mainly on the issuing company's earnings and on its dividend policy. In the case of low profits or even losses, dividend payments may be reduced or not made at all.
  • Warrants
    A warrant is a time-limited right to subscribe for shares, debentures, loan stock or government securities, and is exercisable against the original issuer of the underlying securities. A relatively small movement in the price of the underlying security results in a disproportionately large movement, unfavourable or favourable, in the price of the warrant. The prices of warrants can therefore be volatile. It is essential to understand that the right to subscribe that a warrant confers is invariably limited in time. The consequence of this is that if the investor fails to exercise this right within the predetermined time scale then the investment becomes worthless. It would not be prudent to accept exposure to a warrant unless the investor is prepared to sustain the total loss of the money invested, plus any commission or other transaction charges. Some other instruments are also called warrants, but are actually options  (for example, a right to acquire securities that is exercisable against someone other than the original issuer of the securities, often called a 'covered warrant').

    Access products / equity linked securities / LEPWs (together “Access Products”)
    Investment may be made in equity-linked securities, such as linked participation notes, equity swaps, zero-strike options and securities warrants and low exercise price warrants (“LEPWs”). Access Products may be used to gain exposure to countries that place restrictions on investments by foreigners. Investing in Access Products will involve risks similar to the risks of investing in foreign securities. Access Products are often used for many of the same purposes as, and share many of the same risks with, derivative instruments.

    Equity-linked securities are privately issued securities whose investment results are designed to correspond generally to the performance of a specified stock index or “basket” of stocks, or a single stock. LEPWs are an instrument with an exercise price that is very close to zero. The buyer of an LEPW effectively pays the full value of the underlying equity at the outset. The exercise or settlement date of an Access Product may be affected by certain market disruption events, such as difficulties relating to the exchange of a local currency into U.S. Dollars, the imposition of capital controls by a local jurisdiction, or changes in the laws relating to foreign investments. These events could lead to a change in the exercise date or settlement currency of the Access Product, or postponement of the settlement date. Whilst Martin Currie will only select Access Products issued by entities deemed to be creditworthy, investment in an Access Product generally involves the risk that the issuer of the instrument may default on its obligation to deliver the cash on exercise or sale.

    In the event that the counterparty experiences financial difficulties, the value of the Access Product may drop below the value of the underlying equity, i.e. the investor may receive none, or only part of, the investment back. Access Products may also be subject to liquidity risk because there is no guarantee that the issuer will be willing to repurchase the Access Product when an investor wishes to sell it. Returns by way of dividend and/or settlement amount are payable in USD, converted from local currency by issuer, and therefore be subject to exchange rate risk.

    Transactions in futures involve the obligation to make, or to take, delivery of the underlying asset of the contract at a future date, or in some cases to settle the position with cash. These transactions carry a high degree of risk. The 'gearing' or 'leverage' often obtainable in futures trading means that a small deposit or down payment can lead to large losses as well as gains. It also means that a relatively small movement can lead to a proportionately much larger movement in the value of an investment. Futures transactions have a contingent liability, and clients should be aware of the implications of this, and in particular the margining requirements, which are set out below (under ‘Options’).

    An option is the right (but not the obligation) to buy ('call') or sell ('put') an investment at a predetermined price at a particular date in the future. The option price represents the costs of the right to purchase or sell an underlying security. An option does not carry rights to dividends, and is a synthetic investment that can be traded at any time. There are many different types of options with different characteristics subject to the following conditions.

    An option is the right (but not the obligation) to buy ('call') or sell ('put') an investment at a predetermined price at a particular date in the future. The option price represents the costs of the right to purchase or sell an underlying security. An option does not carry rights to dividends, and is a synthetic investment that can be traded at any time. There are many different types of options with different characteristics subject to the following conditions.

    Buying options
    Buying options involves less risk than selling options because, if the price of the underlying asset moves against an investor, the option can be allowed to lapse. The maximum loss is limited to the premium, plus any commission or other transaction charges. However, if one buys a call option on a futures contract and later exercise the options, the investor will acquire the future. This will expose portfolios to the risks described under 'futures' and 'contingent liability investment transactions', below.

    Writing options
    The risk involved in writing options is considerably greater than buying options. Investors may be liable for margin to maintain positions, and a loss may be sustained well in excess of the premium received. By writing an option, investors accept a legal obligation to purchase or sell the underlying asset if the option is exercised against them, however far the market price has moved away from the exercise price. If the investor already owns the underlying asset that they have contracted to sell (when the options will be known as 'covered call options'), the risk is reduced. If the investor does not own the underlying asset ('uncovered call options'), the risk can be unlimited. Only experienced persons should contemplate writing uncovered options, and then only after securing full details of the applicable conditions and potential risk exposure.

    Contract for difference (‘CFD’)
    A CFD is a tradable instrument that mirrors the movements of the asset underlying it. It allows for profits or losses to be realized when the underlying asset moves in relation to the position taken, but the actual underlying asset is never owned. Essentially, it is a contract between the client and the broker. They are leveraged over-the-counter derivatives. These can be based upon single stock equities. Transactions in CFDs may also have a contingent liability. Investors should be aware of the implications of this, as set out under ‘Contingent liability investment transactions’ below. Investors should also be aware of the risks explained under ‘Off-exchange transactions in derivatives’ below.

    Off-exchange transactions in derivatives
    While some off-exchange markets are highly liquid, transactions in off-exchange or 'non-transferable' derivatives may involve greater risk than investing in on-exchange derivatives because there is no exchange market on which to close out an open position. Risk will depend on the nature of the counterparty with whom the transaction is entered into. It may be impossible to liquidate an existing position, to assess the value of the position arising from an off-exchange transaction or to assess the exposure to risk. Bid prices and offer prices need not be quoted and, even where they are, dealers in these instruments will establish them. Consequently, it may be difficult to establish a fair price. Engaging in off-exchange derivative transactions exposes the investor to the risk that the other party to the transaction will be unable or unwilling to make timely payments of amounts due or to honour its obligations.

    A fund is an investment vehicle into which investors can make an investment by purchasing a unit, share or interest (“unit”) in the fund. The fund is usually managed by a third party that invests the fund's cash and assets. The units represent the investor's interest in the fund, and the value of the units purchased is determined by reference to the value of the underlying investments made by the fund (although where the units in the fund are listed or traded on a market, the units may trade or be sold at a discount to net asset value).

    There are many different types of fund available, including long-short funds, private equity funds, mutual funds and unit trusts. A fund may be structured as a limited partnership, an investment company (onshore or offshore), a unit trust or an investment trust. Depending on the legal structure of the fund, units in the fund may be listed on a stock exchange and the fund may be either open-ended (generally conferring on investors a right to redeem their interests in the fund with the value of the fund being determined by the value of underlying assets) or closed-ended (based on a fixed number of shares which are not redeemable from the fund). Some fund structures are more exposed to risk than others, due to, among other things, the markets they invest in, the nature of their assets and the extent of their leverage.

    Some funds may have many 'sub-funds'. Investors should be aware of the potential for cross-liability risk between these sub-funds. A creditor of the fund may look to all the assets of the sub-funds for payment, regardless of the sub-fund in respect of which that creditor's debt has arisen. Assets may be re-allocated to and from any other sub-fund if it is necessary to do so to satisfy a creditor. Some funds charge an annual management fee. Usually this will be taken from the income generated. If insufficient income is generated by the fund to cover the management fee, the balance will be deducted from the fund's capital.

    To the extent that a fund pursues a certain investment strategy or invests in certain designated investments, the various risk warnings set out elsewhere in this document will apply to that strategy and investments. In addition, dealing in any type of fund may involve the following risks:

    • Transferability and withdrawal: units in funds may not be readily redeemable or transferable or there may not be a market for such units. This could make an exit impossible. Where redemption is possible, there may be fees payable on redemption of units.
    • The units in some funds may be listed on a stock market. As a result, the share price will fluctuate in accordance with supply and demand and may not reflect the underlying net asset value of the units.
    • Regulation: some funds may not be regulated in the jurisdiction of their establishment. This means that certain investor protections or restrictions on activity applicable, in a given jurisdiction, to a regulated fund may not apply to such funds.
    • Leverage: some funds may borrow money under credit facilities to satisfy redemption requests, pay certain organisational expenses and finance the acquisition of investments. This exposes the fund to capital risk and interest costs that may reduce the value of an investor's investment in the fund.
    • Contingent liability investment transactions
      Contingent liability investment transactions, which are margined, require you to make a series of payments against the purchase price, instead of paying the whole purchase price immediately. When trading in futures, contracts for differences or sell options, investors may sustain a total loss of the margin deposited to establish or maintain a position. If the market moves against an investor, the investor may be called upon to pay substantial additional margin at short notice to maintain the position. Failing to do so within the time required may result in the position being liquidated at a loss, and the investor will be responsible for the resulting deficit. Even if a transaction is not margined, it may still carry an obligation to make further payments in certain circumstances, over and above any amount paid when entering the contract.

      Except as specifically provided by the FCA, Martin Currie may only carry out margined or contingent liability investment transactions with or for investors if they are traded on or under the rules of a recognised or designated investment exchange. Contingent liability investment transactions that are not so traded may expose investors to substantially greater risks.

      Emerging markets managed account program: Martin Currie Global Emerging Markets SMA
      Martin Currie emerging market equity portfolios include exposure to individual international companies. In addition to investments in individual equity securities, managed account program portfolios may involve investment in units of the LEGG MASON GLOBAL ASSET MANAGEMENT TRUST Martin Currie SMASh Series EM Fund (‘SMASh Fund’). The prospectus describes the principal investment strategy of the SMASh Fund and the risks associated with an investment in the SMASh Fund. The portfolio managers use investments in the SMASh Fund to obtain exposure to certain companies that, due to the nature of the securities involved, generally do not allow for practical exposure through direct client account investment in such securities.

      A Martin Currie emerging market portfolio's allocation to the SMASh Fund will vary over time based on the managers' discretionary allocation decisions, as well as market fluctuations. A managed account program portfolio's aggregate allocation to the SMASh Fund generally will not exceed 50%. However, a portfolio's aggregate allocation to the SMASh Fund may temporarily exceed 50% due to market fluctuations and pending reallocation by the portfolio managers.

      A client may obtain a prospectus for the SMASh Fund from the client's Sponsor Firm. The prospectus includes information concerning the SMASh Fund's investment objectives, strategies and risks. The prospectus also contains a general description of the tax consequences associated with the redemption of the SMASh Fund shares and the receipt of dividend and capital gains distributions from the SMASh Fund.

      SMASh Fund redemptions may occur as a result of reallocation among securities, account withdrawals and account termination. By selecting a Martin Currie emerging markets portfolio, a client consents to the investment of account assets in the SMASh Fund. The client may revoke this consent by terminating the client's portfolio. In the event of such a termination, the client's SMASh Fund shares will be redeemed.

      Only separately managed account clients of may purchase shares of the SMASh Fund. While neither the manager nor the sub-adviser of the SMASh Fund charges a management fee to the SMASh Fund, the manager and sub-adviser do receive portions of the fees clients pay for management of emerging markets managed account program portfolios.

      By selecting a managed account or model delivery program, a client confirms that it has obtained and reviewed the prospectus in connection with the client’s selection of a Martin Currie portfolio and authorises Martin Currie to accept delivery of the SMASh Funds’ prospectus on behalf of the client in connection with Martin Currie’s ongoing provision of discretionary investment management services.

      Further risk warnings relating to the Franklin Templeton umbrella funds are set out in the prospectuses of Franklin Templeton Funds ICVC and Franklin Templeton Global Funds plc, which can be found on the Franklin Templeton website.